Coffee is prepared from roasted coffee beans and brewed into a beverage that is very popular. Coffee plants are called Coffea and the seeds of the berries of the plant are plucked when ripe, processed and dried. Green or unroasted coffee beans are a traded agricultural product. After they are traded they are roasted to varying degrees to produce a number of flavours before they are ground into coffee powder.
Coffee is a beverage that has been drunk for centuries all over the world though it is said to have originated in Ethiopia and is today one of one the biggest industries worldwide. India is the third-largest producer and exporter of coffee in Asia, and the sixth-largest producer and fifth-largest exporter of coffee in the world. The most popular coffee varieties grown in India are the Arabica and Robusta varieties which account for 30 per cent and 70 per cent of coffee production respectively. Arabica is named after the original coffee trees that came from Ethiopia. Arabica is fine, mild and aromatic and accounts for 70% of the world’s trade and also fetches the highest prices. Robusta on the other hand is used in blends and as instant coffee. Robusta coffee has a distinctive taste and has more caffeine and is slightly bitter as compared to Arabica.
Most of the coffee in India is produced in the southern states. In India the single origin coffee variety called the Indian Kathlekhan Superior is appreciated for its distinct and uniform flavour. Single origin coffees are prepared from coffee beans that are grown in one location. In India it is the Coffee Board of India that carries out research and development and also promotes coffee in the domestic as well as international markets. For developing countries all over the world coffee brings in much required foreign exchange. In 2014–15, India’s coffee export volume was 286,545 metric tonnes and value was US$ 810.1 million.
The FSSR Definition
According to the FSSAI regulations Coffee whether green, raw or unroasted means the dried seeds of Coffea arabica, Coffea liberica, Coffee excelsa or Coffea canephora (robusta) with their husks (mesocarp and endocarp) removed.
Roasted coffee means properly cleaned green coffee which has been roasted to a brown colour and has developed its characteristic aroma.
Ground coffee means the powdered products obtained from ‘roasted coffee’ only which is free from husk.
Coffee (green raw or unroasted), ‘roasted and ground coffee’ must be free from any artificial colour, flavour and must contain no extraneous matter or glazing substances and must be sound, dry and fresh condition, free from rancid or obnoxious flavour.
FSSAI standards for these roasted and ground coffee
Analytical standards for roasted coffee and ground coffee
Moisture (on dry basis) m/m – Not more than 5.0 per cent
Total Ash (on dry basis) m/m – 3.0 to 6.0 per cent
Acid insoluble ash (on dry basis) m/m – Not more than 0.1 per cent
Water soluble ash (on dry basis) m/m – Not less than 65 per cent of total ash
Alkainity of soluble ash in millilitres of – Not less than 3.5 ml & Not more than
5.0 ml 0.1 N hydrochloric acid per gram
of material (on dry basis) m/m
Aqueous extracts on dry basis m/m – Not less than 26.0 and not more than
35.0 per cent
Caffeine (anhydrous) (on dry basis) m/m – Not less than 1.0 per cent
Soluble Coffee Powder means coffee powder, obtained from freshly roasted and ground pure coffee beans. The product must be a free flowing powder or in the agglomerated form (granules) and should have the colour, taste and flavour characteristic of coffee. It must have neither impurities nor contain chicory or any other added substances.
Standards for soluble coffee powder
Moisture (on dry basis) m/m – Not more than 4.0 per cent
Total ash (on dry basis) m/m – Not more than 12.0 per cent
Caffeined content (on dry basis) m/m – Not less than 2.8 per cent
Solubility in boiling water – Dissolves readily in 30 seconds with moderate stirring
Solubility in cold water at 16±2ºC – Soluble with moderate stirring in 3