The guidance on a food safety management system for bakery and bakery products is based on Part II of Schedule 4 of Food Safety & Standards (Licensing & Registration of Food Businesses) Regulation, 2011 but is not intended replace any legal provision of Food Safety & Standard Act, 2006 & regulations thereunder. The bakery sector comprises the largest segment of the food processing sector in India. There are more than 2,000 organized or semi-organized bakeries producing around 1.3 million tonnes of the bakery products and 1,000,000 unorganized small-scale bakeries producing 1.7 million tonnes. Bread and biscuits are the most popular bakery items and account for 80% of the total market. Key issues that the industry is facing include the need for improvements in hygienic practices as well as technology apart from the availability of skilled manpower at all levels of bakery operations.
The Scope of the guidance includes
This document is applicable for food businesses involved in the bakery sector. The major activities in the bakery industry comprise of the following:
- Receiving & storing of raw material.
- Manufacturing & packing of bakery products.
- Storage/Warehousing & Transportation of bakery products
All the above activities may or may not be carried by the same facility. Hence, based on their position in the food supply chain, a bakery industry could use the guidance document accordingly as per the operations applicable to them. This document provides guidance for FSMS implementation for the following bakery products.
- a) Biscuits
- b) Bread
- c) Cakes & Pies
The specified requirements where compliance is essential and obligatory for food businesses and in such cases the word “shall” is used. In addition, certain good practices are also strongly advised for food safety operation & in such case “should” is used.
ESTABLISHMENT – DESIGN AND FACILITIES
Location and surrounding
Potential sources of contamination need to be considered before deciding on the location for a bakery as there is a need to minimize contamination and environmental pollution so it must be away from
- industrial activities that produce disagreeable or unpleasant odor, fumes, excessive soot, dust, smoke, chemical or biological emissions and pollutants that pose a serious threat to food safety
- areas subject to flooding
- the boundary must have access control so as to avoid entry of stray animals
- an external area must be free of debris, solid or liquid waste, stagnant water
- maintained grass/planted area inside and outside the premises especially insect repellent plants must be planted like marigold, neem, basil, etc.
- no access to a residential area in case residential area is in same premises
Premises & rooms
Construction, design & layout has been given in detail below are the main highlights
- Building material must be safe for use near food and must not release toxic substances and any material that sheds paint, plastic, plaster or fibers shall not be used.
- Access for cleaning of equipment or use of moveable equipment
- Where steam or excessive humidity occur some form of natural or mechanical ventilation/extraction should be provided.
- Where condensation occurs and where ventilation is impractical affected areas shall be cleaned and redecorated regularly
- Wall and floor junctions should be covered and overhead cables kept to a minimum.
- Services, light units should be mounted flush to ceilings/ roofs or on rods or cables and preferably not chains.
- Pipework should not be boxed in because of the risk of infestation.
- The layout must provide sufficient space to allow high-risk foods to be prepared safely.
- Possible entry points for pests should be proofed.
- External openings or doors may require proofing against insects (e.g. insect-proof screen doors, plastic strip curtains, rapid rise doors)
Internal structures & fittings
It includes floors, walls, ceiling, doors, windows, partitions, overhead fixtures, working surface, stairs, elevators & similar structures for which construction material shall be
- Impervious to food particles, grease & water
- Non-toxic in the intended use
- Facilitate easy and effective cleaning and maintenance and not become a source of contamination
Walls & partitions: Walls & partitions shall be provided to separate operations, wherever required
Ceiling & overhead fixtures: ceiling including false ceiling shall be provided where they are necessary to protect food from contamination.
Floors: Floors shall be non-slippery but facilitate cleaning
Windows: good ventilation, the material used must minimize accumulation of dust and be fitted with insect-proof screens and remain closed during operations
Doors: smooth and non-absorbent material
Food Contact Surface (including working surface): must be inert to food and cleaning chemicals and free from cracks and open seams with nuts and bolts.
Equipment & containers
Food handling equipment
- Equipment and containers shall be hygienically designed, constructed and maintained in good order and repair. A material of construction shall be non-corrosive, non-toxic and impervious to grease, food material, cleaning agents etc. The material of construction shall be in accordance with Food Safety & Standards (Packaging & Labelling) Regulation, 2011.
- The equipment shall prevent the contamination of the product
- Fixtures, fittings, and equipment that use water for food handling or other activities and are designed to be connected to a water supply must be connected to an adequate supply of water.
- Equipment should be self-draining in wet process areas. And where appropriate, connected directly to drains. Where possible, CIP (Cleaning in Place) method should be followed.
- Containers must be provided with proper fitting cover/lid or with a clean gauge net or other material of texture sufficiently fine to protect the contents completely from dust, dirt etc. Where chemical additives have to be used to prevent corrosion of equipment and containers
Food Control and monitoring equipment
- The equipment used to cook, heat treat, cool, thaw, store or freeze food shall achieve the temperature as rapidly as necessary & maintain the same.
- The equipment shall also be designed to allow temperature & other characteristics (such as RH%, air flow) to be monitored & controlled, wherever required.
Container for holding waste, non-food chemicals & hazardous substance shall be
- Clearly identified for their intended purpose
- Suitably constructed of impervious material
- Easy to clean
- Provided with cover, preferable foot operated
- located in a designated area
- No pest harbourage
Non-food chemicals & hazardous substance shall be closed when not in use and stored separately under lock with access to only authorized personnel.
Chemicals & other hazardous substance should be stored in original containers with label intact.
Detailed guidelines have been provided in the document for the following but the highlights are as follows
Water Supply: potable water supply must be adequate and meet IS: 10500 standards. Only potable water shall be used for processing/cooking, preparing ice & steam which is used as an ingredient; handling raw food or cleaning food contact surfaces/equipment/plant cleaning.
Waste disposal and drainage: Waste disposal systems & facilities shall be provided so that there is no risk of contaminating food or potable water supply
Cleaning: There shall be adequate, preferably separate facilities provided for cleaning food, utensils & equipment to prevent contamination
Personal hygiene and employee facilities: shall be provided in adequate number& size. It shall be suitably designated & located.
Hand washing facilities: includes basins, wash bins, drying facilities, soap, disinfectant, temperature controlled water supply
Toilets: Sufficient number and separate hygienically designed toilets with proper flushing facilities shall be provided for male & female at the ratio of 1:25. Shall not open directly to the food production area and shall be maintained in clean & hygienic condition.
Restroom & refreshment room: adequate space to consume foods and rest during breaks including hand washing facility
Changing Room: must have locker facilities, appropriate PPE, a receptacle for dirty work wear.
Temperature control: facilities shall be available for achieving & maintaining temperatures required for heating, cooling, chilling, cooking, refrigerating & freezing food.
Air Quality & ventilation: Food premises where operation result in a release of fumes, smokes or any vapor shall be equipped with an exhaust system or ventilation to minimize airborne contamination, ambient temperature, odor and humidity
Lighting: Adequate natural or artificial lighting shall be provided to enable the personnel to operate in a hygienic manner. Light fittings should be located so as to minimize the risk of contact and damage. FSSAI has recommended the adequate lighting according to location and size of the pastry shop and a baking area in a table.
Storage facilities: shall be designed and constructed to provide protection from dust, condensation, waste, pest access and harbourage and other sources of contamination. Storage space should be physically separated or segregated for –
- Raw material
- Packaging material
- Returned material
- Recalled material
- Semi-processed material
- Final product
- Hazardous chemical (used in engineering)
- Cleaning & disinfection chemical
- Engineering tools
- Waste material (both biodegradable & non-biodegradable)
Storage areas shall be maintained at temperatures, required by the products. It includes –
- Freezer maintained at -18°C
- Refrigerators maintained at 5°C
- Room Temperature at 37°C
- Hot holding unit maintained at or above 60°C
Compressed air and gases like carbon dioxide, nitrogen and other gas systems wherever required used in manufacturing &/or packaging shall be constructed & maintained so as to prevent contamination
CONTROL OF OPERATION
- Raw material shall be procured from supplier having FSSAI license. Mandatory document such as Form E shall be procured. As a good practice, Certificate of Analysis (COA) should also be procured from the supplier mentioning its batch number, date of manufacturing, expiry date and testing parameters (physical, chemical and/or biological)
- Raw material shall meet the requirements of food product & food additives standards as laid down in regulation
- For imported ingredients &/or products, operators should verify that the suppliers are capable of providing food products that comply with regulations laid down under Food Safety & Standard Act, 2006.
- The vehicle should be clean & free from pest or dirt/dust etc.
- Jute bags are not allowed
Inspection of raw material
- No material containing chemical, physical or microbiological contaminants will be accepted unless it is possible to reduce them to acceptable levels through sorting and processing
- Receiving temperature of potentially hazardous food must be 5°C or below; or 60°C or above. Receiving temperature of frozen food shall be -18°C or below.
- Where necessary, laboratory tests should be made to establish fitness for use
- The packaged raw material must be checked for expiry date/best before/use by date,
- Ingredients containing allergens should be clearly identified & stored to prevent cross contamination
The product-specific recommended practices have been given for the following eggs:
- shells shall not be cracked, dispose of cracked eggs
- store in chiller until they are needed at room temperature they must be sued and replenished daily
- washing hands, utensils and surfaces after handling eggs and before contact with other foods
Dry ingredients like wheat flour, sugar, milk powders, minor ingredients and cocoa powder:
- Sampling and test of incoming raw materials by appropriate test sieves.
- Raw material should be stored in a room that has the required humidity and temperature control.
Ready-to-eat products containing lightly-cooked or uncooked eggs (e.g. butter, cream, icing, mayonnaise, mousse, condensed milk)
- Only small batches should be procured of what is required
- Use a liquid egg or egg powder instead of shell eggs where possible.
- Cleaning of drums containing liquid/semi-liquid raw materials for removal of debris and droppings before taking into FBO storage
- Storage of finished products in covered containers in the chiller at 4°C and below.
- Storage of finished products on separate shelves above raw food (including shell eggs).
Wet ingredients like Oils and Fats
- Material carried by tanker with a broken seal or without the seal is not acceptable
- For preventing physical contamination, 30 BSS sieve and magnet to be put in the hose at the point of unloading
- Use of proper plunger for homogenizing the material in tanker or barrel before sampling
Specialty Ingredients like Nuts and Dry Fruits
- Nuts received are free from fungal or insect infestation
- Nuts are stored below 4°C
Allergen handling and Control and Management
- Display all the allergens at the relevant places in the processing and storage areas for awareness among all the employees.
- All raw materials that are allergens should be labeled with a tag that states “Allergen.”
- Products containing non-allergen ingredients should run before the product containing allergic ingredients.
- Store all allergic foods or ingredients at a designated area and dedicated scoops, utensils shall be used for specific allergens.
Detailed guidelines have been provided for the following areas
- Storage (Raw material and final product)
- Food processing along with major critical points
- Food packaging
- Rework & control of non-conforming products
- Food Transportation
- Food traceability & recall
- Quality Control
ESTABLISHMENT – MAINTENANCE & SANITATION
Under this heading detailed guidelines have been provided for
- Clean and sanitation of premises and equipment
- Pest Control System
- Waste disposal management
ESTABLISHMENT – PERSONAL HYGIENE
Food handlers shall undergo a medical examination by a registered medical practitioner as follows
- Physical examination
- Eye test
- Skin examination
- Compliance with schedule of vaccine to be inoculated against enteric group of disease
- Any test required to confirm any communicable or infectious disease which the person suspected to be suffering from, on clinical examination
Illness & injury: Food handlers suffering from of a disease shall not be allowed to handle food or material which comes in contact with food
Personal cleanliness: Food handlers shall maintain high degree of personal hygiene and wear work clothing, head covering & footwear that is fit for the purpose,
Personal Behaviour: shall follow good personal behaviour by avoiding smoking, chewing, eating, unprotected sneezing or coughing and spitting, scratching nose, rubbing eyes, mouth and ears, touching hair, beard or body parts.
Visitors shall wear protective clothing, footwear and adhere to all the personal hygiene requirements
PRODUCT INFORMATION AND CONSUMER AWARENESS
Product information &Labelling: All packaged food products shall carry a label and requisite information as per provisions of Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 and regulations
Consumer awareness and Complaint handling: Information shall be presented to consumers in such a way as to enable them to understand its importance and make informed choices.
ESTABLISHMENT-TRAINING & MANAGEMENT
Training: All personnel should be aware of their role & responsibility in protecting food from contamination or deterioration
Management & Supervision: Technical managers and supervisors must have appropriate qualifications, knowledge, and skills on food hygiene principles and practices to be able to ensure food safety and quality of its products, judge food hazards, take appropriate preventive and corrective action, and to ensure effective monitoring and supervision.
ESTABLISHMENT – AUDIT, DOCUMENTATION AND RECORD KEEPING
Self-Evaluation and Review: FBO shall conduct a self-evaluation through internal and external audits
Documentation & Records: Appropriate documentation & records including
incoming material checks, inspection and testing, calibration of food safety equipment, water testing, operational controls (such as temperature, pressure, time etc.), product recall and traceability, storage, cleaning and sanitation, pest control, medical examination and health status of food handlers, training etc. shall be maintained in a legible manner.
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is essential to carry out to identify the weakness of the production line and to suggest critical limits in compliance with legislation and therefore the preventive and corrective measures.
HACCP Implementation steps
- Assemble HACCP team
- Describe product
- Identify intended use
- Construct flow diagram
- On-site confirmation of flow diagram
Principle 1: List of all potential hazards associated with each step, conduct a hazard analysis, and consider any measures to control identified hazards
Principle 2: Determine Critical Control Points
Principle 3: Establish Critical Limits for each CCP
Principle 4: Establish a monitoring system for each CCP
Principle 5: Establish corrective actions
Principle 6: Establish Verification Procedures
Principle 7: Establish Documentation and Record Keeping
As a sample the document contains
- HACCP Plan for Biscuits & Pies
- HACCP Plan for Bread
- HACCP Plan for Cakes
The checklist has the date, FBO name, Food Safety officer and representative, FBO license number and address.
Audit questions along with score about
- Design and facilities
- Control of operations
- Maintenance and sanitation
- Personal hygiene
- Training & Complaint Handling