With the implementation of FSS Act, 2006, the edible oil industry is governed by FSS Act, Rules & Regulations for issue of license, safety and ensuring standard parameters. However, for licensing, the producer or manufacturer of vegetable oil, edible oil and other products needs to have his own laboratory facility for analytical testing of samples as it is one of the conditions of the license.
Any FBO that applies for License or Renewal of License has to submit FSMS program related documents along with the application for license.
Another stipulation under the regulations is that every manufacturer [including ghani operator] or wholesale dealer in butter, ghee, vanaspati, edible oils, solvent extracted oil, de-oiled meal, edible flour and any other fats shall maintain a register and present the same for inspection by the food authorities. The register must show details of
- the quantity of manufactured, received or sold oil
- nature of oil seed used
- quantity of de-oiled meal and edible flour used etc. as applicable
- destination of each consignment of the substances sent out from his factory or place of business.
Food Business Operators must also be careful that they do not sell or distribute, offer for sale or deliver to any person for the purpose of sale any edible oil that is not packed, marked or labelled as specified in the regulations. They can be exempted these conditions only if there is a public interest notification by the Food Safety Commissioner in the official Gazette and that too under
- specific circumstances,
- for specific period of time
- for reasons recorded in writing.
Location and Layout of the establishment
In keeping with regulations and to prevent contamination edible oil manufacturing units are to be located away from those industries that emit harmful gas, chemicals or obnoxious odours. Machinery in the factory must occupy only 50% of floor space so that there is no obstacle to continuous production.
The factory must have a permanent roof like R. C.C, asbestos or iron sheet. Similarly the flooring must be either tiled, cemented or pakka stone laid. The production area walls are required to be smooth and should not be less than five feet height and the junctions between the walls and floors are curved. The factory premises must be whitewashed and painted and should also have adequate lighting and ventilation. To take care that no effluents could contaminate the oil, the factory requires proper refuse disposal and drainage facility.
To prevent infestation from flies and insects, all doors must have automatic door closures, while windows and other openings must be fitted with secure mesh or screens. For hygienic purposes entrances must have antiseptic/ disinfectant foot mats. Toilet facilities must be adequate for all workers and located away from the factory premises. Factory owners need to adopt a CIP (clean-in-place) system.
Equipment and Fixtures
Manufacturing plant owners must provide adequate facility to disinfect and clean equipment and instruments used in oil production. Equipment made with stainless steel/ galvanized iron or other non-corrosive material is most suitable for use. Temperature and pressure/vacuum in the processing vessels require proper maintenance. Edible oil must be transported in clean transport particularly if the same transportation is used for non-food items. The transport must be equipped with temperature control facility if required.
Processing plants must carry out only
- Approved processes in the factory
- More than 180° C temperature is required for de-odourisation
- Post neutralization must be carried out for hydrogenation/ interesterification units
Packaging and Storing
Packaging material must be adequately available and while place for storage must be clean and free from pest and rodent infestation. Packaging section must be clean, tiled, covered and free from contaminants like flies and insects. Use only food grade containers or those made of prime quality material for packing edible oil and fats. Tin containers must be rust free. If required, manufacturing units must provision for cold storage facility. Follow all labelling norms on packs along with correct batch numberings so consumers are safe.
To ensure that edible oil and fats are not contaminated through workers manufacturing unit owners need to provide adequate
- Aprons, headgear, disposable gloves and footwear
- Provision for hand wash, detergent/ bactericidal soap
- Nail cutters
- Hand drying facility
- Toilets with disinfectant foot mats
You must ensure that there is adequate supply of potable water and facilities to store water in a clean and safe manner. Make sure that potable and non-potable water pipes are easily identifiable by marking them appropriately.
Food Testing Facility
All edible oil manufacturing units should have a well-equipped laboratory for testing of vegetable oils/fats with provisions for necessary chemicals and supporting facilities. The laboratory must employ qualified chemists. Raw oil or finished products must be all tested within standard parameters and quality control records must be satisfactorily maintained.
All packaged edible oils that are being sold in all retail outlets would now be marked with the new ISI standards. BIS has been working on new standards for edible oil.