FSSAI has now proposed to add more colours to the list of the permitted natural colours, whether isolated from natural colours or produced synthetically, and may be used in or upon any article of food. Once the changes are published in the Official Gazette these regulations will be called the Food Safety and Standards (Food Products Standards and Food Additives) Amendment Regulations, 2014.
With the growth in the Indian processing industry and competition from international markets for food products it becomes important to make food attractive for the consumers. Colours play an important part in making food products appear marketable. The number of permissible colours varies from country to country. FSSAI as the apex regulator has laid down the guidelines for Colour Matters in regulation 3.1.2 of the Food Safety and Standards (Food Products Standards and Food Additives) Regulations, 2011. Clause (2) of the regulations names the natural colours that are permitted to be used in foods.
The following are the names of the new colours that are proposed to be added to the list of permitted colours in regulation 3.1.2 in sub clause 2. However, these colours are not permitted to be used in “infant foods”.
- Copper Cholorophyllin
- Natural Carotenes
Extracts from the official FSSAI Doc.
Anthocyanins can be obtained from any of these grape skin, blackcurrant and beet red.
- Grape Skin: This is extracted from grape skin and is purplish red in colour and may be formed into liquid, lump, powder or paste. The colour has a characteristic odour that is obtained by aqueous extraction of grape skin or mare after the juice has been expressed from it. It contains the components of grape juice like anthocyanine, tartaric acid, tannins, sugar, minerals, etc. but these components are not found in the same proportion as in grape juice. Synonyms Enociania, Eno: INS No.163 (ii). The principal colouring matters are anthocyanins, glucosides of anthocyanidins (2-phentlbenzopyrylium salts) such as peonidin, malvidin, delphinidin, and petunidin.
- Black currant: This extract is obtained from blackcurrant pomace by aqueous extraction. It is formed into a purplish-red liquid, paste or powder and has a slight characteristic odour. There are four main colouring principles of anthocyanins namely; cyaniding 3- rutinoside, delphinidin 3-rutinosidc, cyaniding 3-glucoside, delphinidine 3-glucoside and these are also the chemical names for black currant extract.
- Beet Red is acquired from the roots of red beets (Beta vulgaris L var. rubra) as press juice or by aqueous extraction of shredded beet roots and is composed of different pigments all belonging to the class betalaine. The main colouring principle consists of betacyanins (red) of which betanine accounts for 75-95%; minor amounts of betaxanthine (yellow) and degradation products of betalaines (light brown) may be present. The colour obtained is red or dark red liquid, paste, powder or solid. Synonyms: Beetroot Red; INS No. 162.
Copper Cholorophyllin (Chlorophyllins, copper complexes Sodium and Potassium salts) This will produce a dark green to blue/black colour in powder form and dark green if it is in solution form. Synonyms are Sodium copper chlorophyllin, potassium copper chlorophyllin, C.l. (1975) No.75815, I NS No. l4l (ii).
Natural Carotenes (β Carotene from Blakeslea Trispora); This colour is obtained from a fungus Blakeslea trispora through a fermentation process using the two sexual mating types (+) and (-) of the fungus. The colour is isolated from the biomass by solvent extract and it is then crystallised. Colour is red to brownish red in crystal form or crystalline powder. Synonyms: Cl Food Orange 5, INS No. 160a (iii).
Paprika: This extract is obtained by solvent extraction of the dried ground fruit pods of Capsicum annuum. The major colouring compounds are capsanthin and capsorubic. Other coloured compounds, such as other carotenoids are also present. The balance of the extracted material is lipidic in nature and varies depending on the primary extraction solvent. For commercial use the preparation may be diluted and standardised with respect to colour content using refined vegetable oil. Only methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, acctone, hexane, ethyl acetate and supercritical carbon dioxide may be used as solvents in the extraction. The colour is a dark-red viscous liquid. Synonyms: INS No. 160c, Capsanthin, Capsorubin.
Carthamus: Carthamus Yellow is a flavonoid and is obtained by extracting the corolla (petals) of Carthamus tinctorius L (common name safflower) with water or slightly acidified water and drying the extract. The principal colouring matters are safflomin A (hydroxysafflor yellow A) and safflomine B (safflor yellow B). Besides the colour pigments carthamus yellow consists of sugars, salts and/or proteins naturally occurring in the source material. Food grade materials such as dcxtrin may be added as carrier for manufacturing dry, powdered items of commerce. The colour obtained is in the form of yellow to dark brown crystals, paste, powder or liquid with a faint characteristic odour. Synonyms Safflower yellow, Cl Natural Yellow 5 .
Lutein (Tagetes Erecta) This is a purified extract of xanthophylls obtained from marigold oleoresin. The oleoresin is prepared from hexane extracts of marigold flowers, saponified with potassium hydroxide in either methanol or propylene glycol. The resulting crystalline material contains lutein, and minor components including other carotenoids and waxes. The extract is a free-flowing, orange-red powder. Synonyms: Vegetable lutein, vegetable luteol, Bo-Xan (lutein).
FBOs can check for the complete details of the FSSAI Doc. from the following link: