Margarine and Fat Spreads have gained importance because of health reasons. However, there are so many products that sometimes it becomes difficult for the consumers to select the right product unless labelling is correct. Health claims are based on the content of cholesterol, polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat and recently also total fat and trans-fatty acids. Since the health claims are of importance to the consumer regulations also emphasise on the oil blends used in these products.
The FSSAI regulations
Table margarine: This is an emulsion of edible oils and fats with water which is not rancid and does not contain any mineral oil or animal body fats. Table salt content must not exceed 2.5 per cent and the content of skimmed milk powder must not exceed 2 per cent. Those food additives can be added that are permitted in the Regulations and Appendices.
Standards for table margarine
|Fat||Not less than 80 per cent mass/mass|
|Moisture||Not less than 12 per cent and not more than 16 per cent mass/ mass|
|Vitamin A||Not less than 30 I.U. per gram of the product at the time of sale|
|Melting point of extracted fat (Capillary Slip Method)||31ºC to 37ºC|
|Unsaponifiable matter of extracted fat||Not more than 1.5 per cent by weight extracted fat.|
|Free fatty acids (as oleic acid) of extracted fat||Not more than 0.25 per cent by weight|
|Acid Value||Not more than 0.5|
- Further sesame or Til oil content in table margarine must be a minimum of 5.0 per cent of its weight. This is to ensure that when separated fat is mixed with groundnut oil, in the proportion of 20:80, the red colour that is produced by the Baudouin test shall not be lighter than 2.5 red units in 1 cm cell on a lovibond scale.
- Margarine that is coloured and flavoured in this way will also contain starch not less than 100 ppm and not more than 150 ppm.
- Margarine that is coloured and flavoured in this manner will be sold in the market only in sealed packages not weighing more than 500gms.
- Argemone oil test must be negative
Bakery and Industrial margarine: This is an emulsion of vegetable oil product with water. It must not contain any added flavour and colour and cannot taste rancid. It must not contain any mineral oil or animal body fats. Common salt is permitted provided it does not exceed 2.5 per cent. It may also contain food additives that are permitted in these Regulations and Appendices.
Standards for bakery and industrial margarine
|Fat||Not less than 80 per cent m/m.|
|Moisture||Not less than 12 per cent and Not more than 16 per cent m/m.|
|The separated fat of the products shall conform to the following|
|Vitamin A||Not less than 30 IU per gram at the time of packaging and shall show a
positive test for Vitamin ‘A’ when tested by Antimony trichloride (carrprice)
reagents (as per IS 5886-1970).
|Melting point by Capillary slip method||31°C – 41°C|
|Unsaponifiable matter||Not exceeding 2.0 per cent but in case of the products where proportion of Rice bran oil is more than 30 per cent by wt. the unsaponifiable matter shall be not more than 2.5 per cent by wt. provided quantity of Rice bran oil is declared on the label of such product as laid down in Regulation 2.4.5 (34) of Food Safety and Standards (Food Products Standards and Food Additive) Regulations, 2011.|
|Free Fatty Acid
calculated as Oleic acid or Acid value
|Not more than 0.25 per cent
Not more than 0.5
- Further bakery and industrial margarine must contain raw or refined sesame oil (Til oil) in sufficient quantity so that when the product is mixed with refined groundnut oil in the proportion of 20 : 80, the colour produced by the Boudouin test shall not be lighter than 2.0 red unit in a 1 cm. cell on a Lovibond scale.
- Argemone oil test must be negative.
Fat spread: This is a product in the form of water in oil emulsion, of an aquous phase and a fat phase of edible oils and fats excluding animal body fats. The individual oil and fat used in the spread shall conform to the respective standards prescribed by these regulations.
Fat spreads are classified into three groups
Milk fat spread – Fat content that is exclusively milk fat.
Mixed fat spread – Fat content that is a mixture of milk fat with any one or
more of hydrogenated, unhydrogenated refined edible
vegetable Oils or interesterified fat
Vegetable fat spread – Fat content that is a mixture of any two or more of
hydrogenated, unhydrogenated refined vegetable oils or interesterfied fat.
Labelling requirements for fat spread
The fat content shall be declared on the label.
- In mixed fat spread, the milk fat content shall also be declared on the label along with the total fat content.
- The word ‘butter’ will not be associated while labelling the product.
Standards for Fat Spread
|Fat||Not more than 80 per cent and not less than 40 per cent by weight.|
|Moisture||Not more than 56 per cent and not less than 16 per cent by weight.|
|Melting point of Extracted fat (capillary slip method) in case of vegetable fat spread||Not more than 37ºC
|Unsaponifiable matter of extracted fat
(a) In case of milk fat and mixed fat spread
(b) (b) In case of vegetable fat spread
(c) c) Acid value of extracted fat
Not more than 1 per cent by weight
Not more than 1.5 per cent
Not more than 0.5
|vitamin ‘A’||Not less than 25 IU synthetic vitamin ‘A’ per gram at the time of packing and shall show a positive test for vitamin ‘A’ when tested by Antimony Trichloride (Carr-Price) reagents (as per I.S. 5886 – 1970)|
|Starch||Not less than 100 ppm and Not more than 150 ppm|
- Further fat spread may contain edible common salt not exceeding 2 per cent by weight in aqueous phase; milk solid not fat.
- It may contain food additives permitted in these Regulations and Appendices. It shall be free from animal body fat, mineral oil and wax. Vegetable fat spread shall contain raw or refined Sesame oil (Til oil) in sufficient quantity so that when separated fat is mixed with refined groundnut oil in the proportion of 20:80 the red colour produced by Baudouin test shall not be lighter than 2.5 red units in 1 cm cell on a Lovibond scale.
- It is compulsory to sell fat spread in sealed packages weighing not more than 500g and under Agmark certificate mark.