Are there any standards that exist to determine the quality of used cooking oil beyond which the oil is not safe for further use after repeated frying?
As per Clause (4) of sub-paragraph 7 relating to Fried Foods of paragraph VI, Part-V,Schedule 4 of Food Safety and Standards (Licensing and Registration of Food Businesses) Regulations, 2011, Vegetable oil having developed Total Polar Compound more than 25% shall not be used.
Are there any standards for Trans Fats in Various Edible Oils and Fats?
The Food Safety and Standards (Food Products Standards and Food Additives) Regulations, 2011 prescribes the limits of trans fats to be not more than 5% by weight in Interesterified Vegetable Fats, Vanaspati, Bakery and Industrial Margarine and Bakery Shortening.
Is there any proposal to cover other oils and Fats such as Refined Vegetables oil, Fat Spread, Margarine etc. for limit of trans fats?
A proposal for fixing the limits for Trans Fats to be not more than 5% by weight inRefinedVegetable Oil, Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil, Table Margarine, Mixed Fat Spread and Vegetable Fat Spread is under consideration of the Authority.
There is confusion about the presence of various Veg Oils in Blended Edible Vegetable Oil. What are the provisions in the regulations? What should a customer look for on the label of the container?
The clause 24 Blended edible vegetable oil of sub-regulation 2.2.1 OILS of Food Safety and Standards (Food Products Standards and Food Additives) Regulations, 2011 prescribe the standards of Blended Edible Vegetable Oil wherein it is mentioned that the blended edible vegetable oil is anadmixture of any two edible vegetable oils where the proportion byweight of any ediblevegetable oil used in the admixture is not less than 20 per cent.
A consumer should always look at the composition of blended oil i.e., name of oils used,nature (raw or refined) and quantity of oils on the label of blended oil.
What does the vegetable oil consist of?
Vegetable oils consist of fatty acids and other minor constituents like pigments, fatsoluble vitamins, antioxidants, sterols, free fatty acids, etc. There are three types of fattyacids:saturated (SAFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and poly unsaturated (PUFA).
What is SAFA; MUFA; and PUFA?
SAFA is a fatty acid carbon chain with no double bond or point of unsaturation; MUFA isafatty acid carbon chain with one double bond or one point of unsaturation; and PUFAis afatty acid carbon chain with two or more double bonds or point of unsaturation. PUFA canfurther be categorized as Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids.
How can a consumer visually judge which oil is rich in SAFA and which one is
rich in MUFA and PUFA?
The degree of saturation of fatty acids in a fat affects the temperature at which the fatmelts.Generally, the more unsaturated the fatty acids, the more liquid the fat is at roomtemperature (at around 25°C). In contrast, more the saturated the fatty acids, thefirmer thefat. So, Sunflower oil is liquid at room temperature which means moreunsaturation. The oilsor fats which are semi-solid or solid are rich in saturated fattyacids e.g. Butter, Coconut Oil.
Which vegetable oils are rich in SAFA or MUFA or PUFA?
The vegetable oils rich in SAFA, MUFA, PUFA are as under-
- Oils and Fats rich in SAFA: Butter, Ghee, Coconut Oil, Palm Oil, Palm Kernel Oiletc.
- Oils and Fats rich in MUFA: Groundnut Oil, Mustard Oil, Sesame Oil, Rice bran
Oil, Olive Oil etc.
Oils and Fats rich in PUFA: Corn Oil, Soybean Oil, Sunflower seed Oil, Safflower seed Oil etc.
What is recommended amount of SAFA, MUFA and PUFA be consumed in ourdiet?
The recommended healthy ratio of SAFA: MUFA: PUFA is 1:1.5:1.
What are essential fatty acids and their dietary sources?
Of all the fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6 are considered as essential fatty acids sincethese cannot be synthesized in the body. The dietary sources of omega-3 and omega-6
are as under:
- Oils rich in Omega-3: Mustard, Low erucic acid-Mustard, Flaxseed, Soybean Oil,Fish Oil.
- Oils rich in Omega-6: Corn/Maize Oil, Soybean Oil, Sunflower Oil, Groundnut
Oil, Small amount in dairy products.
What is the recommended ratio of omega 3: omega 6 to be consumed in ourdiet?
The recommended healthy ratio of Omega 3: Omega 6 ranges from 1:5 to 1:10.
How a consumer can ensure healthy ratio of SAFA, MUFA and PUFA and
omega 3 and omega 6?
It can be ensured by using the edible oils rich in SAFA, MUFA, and PUFA in rotation, suchas on monthly basis. To ensure omega 3 and omega 6, Mustard, Flaxseed, Soybean Oilmay be included.