Coronavirus disease (COVID- 19) is an urgent and spreading threat for which there is no documentation regarding clinical and epidemiological characteristics. However, the disease is spreading rapidly and the number of cases is rising in most of the countries including India. The disease can be asymptomatic or present symptoms like mild flu, severe respiratory issues and in some cases even gastrointestinal problems. The disease in its severe form can even present acute respiratory illness and pneumonia. Exact dynamics of spread is yet to be determined; however as evident it seems to spread as:
- Directly by human to human transmission, through respiratory droplets when the person carrying the virus either sneezes, coughs; through close personal contact (including touching and shaking hands); or through touching your nose, mouth or eyes with contaminated hands.
- Indirectly through contaminated surfaces that contain the virus.
The potential for food borne transmission is a concern with every new emerging infection. There are no reports or any evidence of faecal-oral transmission and no reported case of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has been linked to transmission by food. Viruses need to enter living cells in order to be able to replicate. Unlike bacteria, they never replicate in food. Consequently, viruses never cause deterioration of the food product and the organoleptic properties of the food will not change due to viral contamination. In case of COVID 19 the main risk involved in human to human transmission during food handling is from close contact with infected food handler or customer.
There is some evidence on other coronavirus strains which show that these coronaviruses appear to be stable at low and freezing temperatures on food surfaces for a certain period of time. However, food hygiene and good food safety practices can prevent their transmission through food. The best practice for food business operators and consumers is to maintain high standards of personal hygiene, the standard protocol of social distancing and limiting social contact, and detecting / isolating the infected persons from food handling operations. World Health Organisation (WHO) has advised social distancing and maintaining high personal hygiene standards as a means of containing and stopping transmission of this virus. Use of Aarogya Setu application may also help in containing this virus.
It is mandatory for all food businesses to implement Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) laid in Schedule 4 of Food Safety and Standards (Licensing and Registration of Food Businesses) Regulation, 2011 to ensure food safety and hygiene in food establishments. Under the present circumstances due to COVID 19 pandemic, there is an urgent requirement for food industry to ensure compliance with measures to protect food handlers from contracting COVID- 19, to prevent exposure to or transmission of the virus, and to strengthen the food hygiene and sanitation practices.
In conjunction with Schedule 4 requirements the three practices to be followed, in food establishments, to prevent the spread of COVID-19 infection are
a) Maintain high levels of personal hygiene
b) Practice social distancing at all times
c) Cleaning and sanitation.
- Responsibility of Food Business Owner /Manager
Food business owner/ Manager shall ensure that:
- Apart from Good Hygiene Practices and Good Manufacturing Practices mentioned in Schedule 4 of FSS (Licensing and Registration of Food Businesses) Regulations, 2011, food handlers / workers should be made aware about COVID-19 symptoms so that they are able to recognise the symptoms early and that they can seek appropriate medical care and testing, and minimise the risk of infecting fellow workers. They should be provided with training on risk factors, safe food handling, social distancing and other protective behaviours (e.g., cough etiquette and wearing of face mask, hand washing with soap or using of alcohol-based hand rubs) required amid COVID-19 infections.
- Employers should have a COVID-19 Screening Protocol in place to screen all personnel entering the premises. All employees/workers/visitors should be screened at entry points for symptoms of COVID-19 such as temperature (using non-contact type thermometer), cough, cold, etc. Those with temperature more than 37.5 °C (99 °F) and/or flu like symptoms shall not be allowed to enter establishment.
Note: Some common symptoms of COVID-19 include:
- Fever high temperature — 37.5 °C or 99 °F)
- Shortness of breath
- Breathing difficulties
- Employees /food handlers/ visitors should be encouraged to self-declare and inform about any signs/symptoms of respiratory illness before or during work/visit to the premises. Such declaration is expected to be forthcoming with the assurance of assistance and pay/ job protection especially in the low-income group of employees. In some cases, infected people may be asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic and may not display any signs or symptoms of disease or may present with mild symptoms -that can be easily overlooked, the employers therefore should ensure the availability of masks and protective gears to all food handlers. In case the food handlers is COVID 19 infected or is identified as the contact of the COVID 19 infected person , he /she should be not be allowed to enter the premises and instructed and to remain in home quarantine for the specified time period and should not return to work until they are free of infection.
- Regular Monitoring of the employees/food handlers is essential for prevention of COVID19 spread within the food establishment. The employees/food handlers should also self-monitor and report any symptoms to the employer. Wearing mask and protective gears at all times should be ensured. The Employers must provision and issue these protective gears to his employees. The employee should maintain one metre of distance from each other and practice social distancing in the workplace.
- Employer should be aware and sensitive of workers concerns about salary, leave, safety, health, and other issues that may arise during the outbreak.
- A local emergency response team should be established in large food businesses to deal with suspected COVID-19 infections and one person should be designated as the COVID-19 co-ordinator. Their contact details should be shared with all employees. The team should develop protocols/guidelines on the steps to be taken when handling suspected COVID-19 cases and as a means of general preparedness, the following should be ensured:
- List of local authorized hospitals for COVID-19 testing and treatment is frequently updated
- Contact details of the professional disinfection company are kept handy;
- Adequate disinfectant for emergency use is available
- Dedicated masks, gloves, safety glasses, protection suits for emergency use (personal protective equipment or PPE) are procured and stored as per government advisories, from time to time
- Isolation rooms (one for suspected cases, one for close contacts) are prepared with special trash bins
- A process for record keeping is established wherein all the related information -attendance, health status of employees, visitor details – are maintained. Process for record keeping shall be developed for suspected/ confirmed cases and should be recorded, including, but not limited to employee name, the whole process of the incident, conversations with local authorities, actions taken by the company.
- Personal Hygiene of Food Handlers
Food Business shall ensure that high hygiene standards in line with established Food Safety Management System (FSMS) and these practices include:
- Proper hand hygiene — washing with soap and water for at least 20 seconds (follow WHO advice)
- Frequent use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers
- Good respiratory hygiene (covers mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing; dispose of tissues and wash hands)
- Frequent cleaning/disinfection of work surfaces and touch points such as door handles.
- Avoiding close contact with anyone showing symptoms of respiratory illness such as coughing and sneezing
- Proper hand hygiene protocols should be strictly followed. They shall thoroughly wash and sanitize hands and change into clean uniform before entering the food premise. Hands should be washed for 20 to 30 seconds using water (preferably hot water) and soap. Hands should be dried with clean towel or air dryers.
- This should preferably be followed with sanitizing of hands (with 70% alcohol-based sanitizer or an equivalent). If soap and running water are not immediately available, provide alcohol-based hand rubs containing at least 60-70% alcohol.
- Employees/ food handlers shall wear face mask and clean protective clothing like full sleeves clothes/aprons, head gears, caps, gloves at all times while in the production area. In case of shortage of face masks, the employees/ food handlers should preferably use clean cloth-based face covering or face mask to cover nose and mouth. The face cover should fit perfectly on face without leaving any gaps on mouth, nose and chin. The face covers should be changed every six hours or as soon as they get wet. Reusable face covers shall be cleaned and sanitized thoroughly. In case disposable face covers are used or reusable face cover is damaged or changes shape, it shall be disposed of in a closed bin. While removing face cover, care shall be taken not to touch outer surface of the face cover. Employees shall avoid touching their face, eyes, nose, etc. after removal of face cover before washing their hands.
(Note: Staff should wash/disinfect hands after removing their regular clothes and before touching their clean uniforms to avoid contamination of clean clothes).
- Employees shall preferably not use personal jewellery, watches etc. Instruments like mobiles should be discouraged while at work place or should be frequently sanitised.
- Gloves shall be worn while handling prepared food or ready to eat food. During this time no other surface, equipment, utensils should be touched or no non-food related activities such as emptying bin, closing doors/windows, touching mobile phones, handling currency etc are carried out. In such a case, the gloves shall be changed and suitably disposed off. Hand must be washed between glove change and when gloves are removed. Wearing gloves may give a false sense of security and may result in staff not washing hands as frequently as required. Employees shall be trained on the correct method of using gloves and wearing gloves shall not be considered as a substitute for hand washing.
- Respiratory hygiene is important to prevent COVID-19 spread at a workplace. Employees shall cover their mouth and nose with tissue while coughing or sneezing. The tissue shall be disposed in a closed bin and hands shall be thoroughly washed and sanitised, before handling food.
- Reporting of illness: Encourage workers to stay home if they have developed any symptom of COVID-19 infection (dry cough, trouble in breathing, high fever and chills). He/she should be allowed to report illness on phone.
- In case any employee develops any flu-like symptoms or COVID-19 illness at the workplace, he/she shall be immediately isolated (should not be sent back to home) and the health / administrative authorities should be informed about it immediately.
- Food handlers working with or near the infected person should also isolate themselves and if required should self-quarantine as per the directions issued by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
(Note: It is ideal that the isolated individual uses a separate toilet and washing area. If that is not possible, then toilet and washing area should be cleaned after use by an infected person).
- Use of fingerprint or biometric attendance shall be discontinued during the pandemic period in order to minimise cross infection through this common contact point and may be replaced with facial recognition or manual system ensuring minimal physical contact. Using each other’s phones, belongings, sharing of common stationery like pens, or other work tools and equipment, should be discouraged.
- The food premises, toilets, counters and equipment that came in contact with the infected person should be thoroughly cleaned with hot water and detergent and disinfected (with 0.1% hypochlorite sol. or an equivalent).
- Practice Social Distancing
- Social distancing aims, through a variety of means, to minimise physical contact between individuals and thereby to reduce the possibility for new infections. A minimum distance of one meter shall be maintained between two persons at all points in a food establishment.
- To implement social distancing, food businesses should:
- Limit the number of people in contact on a production floor or a kitchen or a shop, by creating physical barriers so that people in smaller spaces (3-4 employees in 10 ft areas as an example) can have barriers without hindering work, wherever possible.
- Space out/stagger workstations and food preparation areas, if possible. There should be 1 metre gap between food handlers.
- Reduce the speed of production lines to reduce the number of staff working on the production line and increase the gap between them.
- Review the shift arrangement and social interaction of the staff. Increase time between shifts/scatter break periods to minimize staff interaction. This will also help in ensuring more time for cleaning and sanitation.
- Limit the number of people (staff, delivery drivers, customers) who can come into the food premises at any one time.
- Use spacing measures (e.g. floor markers, stickers) at tills or queues, increase the gaps between workstations, seating arrangements, etc to ensure at least 1-meter gap is maintained between employees, customers and visitors.
- Prohibit sharing of lockers by employees and a gap of at least one meter is maintained by employees while using the lockers.
- For food deliveries, prefer leaving food packets outside the door or maintain a gap of 1 meter from the customer.
- Takeaways and food deliveries should be encouraged instead of dine-in options.
(Note: To avoid crowding at a place, a ticketing system can also be adopted).
- Face-to-face meetings should be restricted as much as possible. The management should identify the roles or areas within a business that may be able to work from home or away from other staff. Avoid staff congregating in car parks or other common areas after their shift.
- Cleaning and Sanitation
- Food premise shall be always well maintained and cleaned thoroughly and sanitized daily. Cleaning and sanitation requirements mentioned in Schedule 4 shall be strictly followed.
- Various areas of Food Establishment (such as food preparation/ production area, stores, packaging area, service area, waste disposal area, etc.), office space, transport vehicle shall be cleaned with soap and water, followed by disinfection (using freshly prepared 1 percent hypochlorite solution or any other disinfectant found to be effective against coronavirus).
- Equipment, containers, utensils, cutlery, etc. should be cleaned thoroughly with soap and water. Preferably use hot water (above 60 °C) for washing and sanitising.
- High touch points (such as elevator buttons, handrails / handles and call buttons, escalator handrails, public counters, intercom systems, equipment like telephone, printers/scanners, and other office machines, table tops, chair handles, pens, diary files, keyboards, mouse, mouse pad, tea/coffee dispensing machines, etc.) shall be cleaned twice daily by mopping with a linen/absorbable cloth soaked in 1 percent sodium hypochlorite. In case of metallic surfaces like door handles, security locks, handles of baskets/carts, display racks where use of bleach is not suitable, 70 percent alcohol shall be used to wipe the surfaces. Hand sanitizing stations should be installed in food establishments (especially at the entry) and near high contact surface.
- Toilets and Washrooms shall be cleaned after every shift using water and detergent. This shall be followed with disinfection using 1 percent hypochlorite solution or an equivalent. For metallic surfaces (such as shower, taps, etc.) and surfaces where use of bleach is not suitable, use 70 percent alcohol-based disinfectant.
- In case any food handler coughs or sneezes without following respiratory hygiene or develops any flu like symptoms, an area of two meters around the person shall be immediately vacated, thoroughly cleaned and disinfected using freshly prepared 1 percent hypochlorite solution or any other disinfectant found to be effective against novel coronavirus. The toilet, counters and equipment that came in contact with the suspected COVID 19 patient shall be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected using 1 percent hypochlorite solution or 70 percent alcohol (in case of metallic surfaces).
- All cleaning equipment, cloth, mops, reusable protective gear such as boots, gloves etc. shall be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected after use and prior to use in other areas.
Steps of Cleaning
Step 1 — Preparation
- Remove loose dirt and food particles.
- Rinse with warm, potable water.
Step 2 — Cleaning
- Wash with hot water (60 °C) and detergent.
- Rinse with clean potable water.
Step 3 — Sanitising
- Treat with very hot, clean, potable water (75 °C) for at least 2 minutes.
Step 4 — Air drying
- Leave benches, counters and equipment to air dry. The most hygienic way to dry equipment is in a draining rack.
- Cleaning process should be followed by disinfection. The common disinfectants that may be used are:
5.Special Instructions for different Food Sectors
Retail food premises and other Food services that need to remain open to cater the needs of the general public during this public health emergency do face a greater challenge in maintaining the hygiene standards of hand washing and respiratory etiquette to protect the staff and the consumers. Besides continuing to follow the established protocols and hygiene practices for retailing, the important COVID 19 recommendations for different sectors are as under:
Food Service /Delivery/Takeaways
- Food service area shall be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected after every meal prepared and disinfect surfaces repeatedly touched by employees or customers such as door knobs, equipment handles, check-out counters, and grocery cart handles, etc.
- Hand washing facility should be made available to the workers and if that is not possible hand sanitizers should be placed at the entry of the retail stores and used accordingly.
- Even with proper hand washing, food workers should use a barrier such as tongs, gloves, or other utensil to prevent direct hand contact with food. The virus is likely to be inactivated by proper cooking temperatures; it is important to use gloves or other barriers to prevent touching foods that will not be fully cooked.
- No ready-to-eat food item shall be left open and shall be kept covered or in glass displays.
- Employees shall wear clean uniform, mask/face cover, gloves and head cover at all times. Pre-screening of the workers for COVID-19 symptoms should be followed. Individuals showcasing COVID-19 symptoms should be sent to the health facility for further evaluation and encouraged to stay home.
- All food items shall be thoroughly washed. Fruits and vegetables (to be consumed raw) shall be washed in 50 ppm chlorine (or equivalent solution) and clean potable water before storage.
- Prepare for fewer customers and make plans for take-out and delivery options that will work with the available staff and supply resources. Use social media to communicate with your local customers.
- No ready-to-eat food item shall be left open and shall be kept covered or in glass displays. Use gloves to avoid direct bare hand contact with ready-to-eat foods.
- There should be visible notices pasted, for staff promoting hand hygiene and physical distancing.
- Help customers to maintain social distancing by way of encouraging spacing between the customers while in line for service or check out in accordance to the social distancing norms (minimum 1 metre gap). Establish designated pick-up zones for customers to help maintain social distancing.
- Buffet system, food service and mass gathering should be disallowed during COVID-19 pandemic; such services shall be resumed only under directions from the concerned Statutory Authorities. In case such services are allowed by the Authorities food establishment shall ensure that:
- Dedicated food handler(s) should serve food items to customers instead of multiple customers using the serving spoons.
- Minimum 1-meter gap is maintained between the food handler and customer.
- Minimum 1-meter gap is maintained between the seating space and tables in the service area.
- High touch points such as countertops, tongs, ladles, handles, etc. should be cleaned and disinfected frequently.
(Note: During lockdown period, food service is limited to community kitchens, staff cafeterias of essential food business, defence and certain government departments, if permitted to function during this period for staff on duty. In future, if other food service establishments are permitted to resume service during Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic, they shall abide by the following guidelines).
In case of food delivery, food handler shall ensure that:
- Face is covered with a clean mask or a face cover, hands are sanitised before food pick up and after delivery.
- Social distancing is followed by maintaining a minimum 1-meter gap between self and customer.
- Contact with common touch points such as door bell, handles, etc is avoided. If unavoidable, hands are sanitised after coming in contact with common touch points. Contactless delivery methods shall be encouraged.
- Customers shall be encouraged to place orders online or on telephone, well in advance. This will help in reducing the wait time at the food establishment.
- Employees shall refrain from handling cash. In case cash is handled, employees shall wash or sanitise their hands afterwards. Customers shall be encouraged to use contactless modes of payments such as UPI, QR codes, net-banking, e-wallets, etc. In case credit/debit cards are used, the card machine shall be sanitised with 70 % alcohol after each use.
- If possible, food businesses shall provide disposable menu, utensils, cutlery, and single use sachet (of salt pepper, sugar, ketchup, etc) instead of reusable utensils, cutlery, bottles or salt shakers; else the same should be frequently cleaned, after each use.
Food Retail Premises
- All employees shall wear clean clothes/uniforms, headgear/cap, face masks and gloves at all times.
- Food businesses shall ensure that limited number of customers entering the store at one point of time. Hand sanitization should be provided at points of entry and exit of a premise to all. Pre-screening of the employees/ workers should be done before start of work and Individuals suspected of having COVID-19 symptoms should be prevented from entering the premises.
- Social distancing norms should be followed by staff and consumers. Floor markings, stickers, etc. should be used to maintain the required gap between consumers, while they wait for their turn to enter the shop or for billing. Make regular announcements to remind consumers about social distancing. Flexi-glass barriers at tills and counters may be used as an additional level of protection for staff.
- Reduce stock quantity on display and create a gap between two products displayed. This will help in maintaining social distancing while shopping.
- Common touch points such as door handles, racks, billing counters, etc. should be cleaned and sanitized frequently. Handles of baskets/trollies should be sanitized after every use.
- In case of food delivery, food handler shall ensure that-
- Face is covered with a clean mask or a face cover; hands are sanitised before food pick up and after delivery.
- Social distancing is followed by maintaining a minimum I meter gap between self and customer.
- Contact with common touch points such as door bell, handles, etc. should be avoided. If unavoidable, hands should be sanitised after coming in contact with common touch points.
- Contactless delivery shall be encouraged.
- Employees shall refrain from handling cash. In case cash is handled, employees shall wash or sanitise their hands afterwards. Customers shall be encouraged to use contactless modes of payments such as UPI, QR codes, e-wallets, etc. In case credit/debit cards are used, the card machine shall be sanitised with 70 percent alcohol after each use.
Food Transportation or distribution
- Drivers, loaders and other support staff shall be trained about the COID-19 infection symptoms and its prevention by following high standards of hygiene, cleaning and sanitation and following social distancing.
- Delivery/transport vehicles shall be cleaned and sanitized (and if possible, disinfected) regularly. This vehicle should only be used for food deliveries/distribution. Cleaning and sanitation records should be available in the vehicle at all times.
- Drivers, loaders and other support staff displaying flu like or COVID-19 symptoms shall refrain from handling/transporting/delivering food.
- Drivers, loaders and other support staff shall maintain high standards of personal hygiene. They shall be provided with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, which may be fixed in the driver’s cabin. Face covers shall be worn at all times.
- Drivers, loaders and other support staff should avoid using public toilets as much as possible.
- Drivers and other staff delivering to food premises should not leave their vehicles during delivery (if possible), and shall refrain from stopping in between for tea breaks, etc.
- If a vehicle enters an area marked as a COVID-19 hotspot, then the vehicle shall be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected before use.
Recent research evaluated the survival of the COVID-19 virus on different surfaces and reported that the virus can remain viable for up to 72 hours on plastic and stainless steel, up to four hours on copper, and up to 24 hours on cardboard. This research was conducted under laboratory conditions (controlled relative humidity and temperature) and should be interpreted with caution in the real-life environment. Food businesses shall ensure that food handlers involved in food packaging should maintain a high level of personal hygiene, social distancing. All measures shall be adopted to ensure that food packaging is kept clean and away from sources of contamination.
Guidance for Consumers
To get infected with COVID-19 by touching groceries and shopping bags is very unlikely if proper hygienic practices are maintained. However, by touching surfaces that may have the virus may be the indirect way of virus spreads. Several recommendations to address any such concerns are:
- Provide single use (paper or plastic, where appropriate) bags for bagging customer groceries.
- Provide alcohol-based hand antiseptic rubs (with 70% ethyl alcohol as the active ingredient) for consumers.
- Rinse fruits and vegetables before cutting or eating. Rinse raw agricultural products, such as heads of lettuce, under running water prior to cutting or serving.
- Thoroughly cook whatever you can. Cooking destroys many germs, including coronavirus.
Recommended Protocols When Employee/Visitor/Customer tests Positive for COVID-19
Food production facilities, distributors, retailers and wholesalers are part of our nation’s “critical infrastructure” and must remain operational to feed the country. Inconsistent\ approaches to reacting to an individual, particularly manufacturing personnel, who test positive for COVID-19, have the potential to jeopardize our food system.
The key recommendations while dealing with employees /food handlers in light with COVID 19 pandemic:
- Steps to be taken when an employee tests positive for COVID-19 or has symptoms (cough, fever, sore throat, shortness of breath) associated with COVID19 (presumptive or suspected case)
- Steps to be taken when an employee/facility visitor/customer has been exposed (in close contact) to an individual who is positive for COVID-19 the potential to jeopardize our food system.
Steps to be taken when an Employee tests Positive for COVID-19 or Is presumed Positive based on symptoms associated with COVID-19
Food manufacturing facilities, distribution centres, wholesale and retail outlets should consider the following as they prepare for the potential that an employee may test positive for COVID-19 or is presumed positive based on disease symptoms.
- For an individual who has symptoms associated with COVID-19 (i.e., fever, cough, and/or shortness of breath) or have tested positive for COVID-19:
- If the employee is onsite at the facility, notify the administrative / health authorities for further protocol
- If the employee is at home, do not permit the employee to come to work.
- Employees who have not been tested but show symptoms of acute respiratory illness are recommended to stay home and be excluded from work until they are free of fever and any other related symptoms for at least 3 days (72 hours), without the use of fever-reducing or other symptom-altering medicines (e.g. cough suppressants) AND at least 7 days have passed since symptoms first appeared.
- Employees should notify their supervisor.
- Encourage the employee to contact their local health authority and seek medical attention upon initial appearance of symptoms.
- Employees with a COVID-19 positive test* who have stayed home (home isolated) may be able to return to work under the following conditions:
If employee will not have a test to determine if they are still contagious, they may be able to return to work after these three things have happened.
- No fever for at least 72 hours since recovery (that is three full days of no fever without the use medicine that reduces fevers) AND
- Other symptoms have improved (for example, when cough or shortness of breath have improved) AND
- At least 7 days have passed since symptoms first appeared.
If employee will be tested to determine if they are still contagious, they may be able to return to work after these three things have happened:
- No longer have a fever (without the use medicine that reduces fevers) AND
- Other symptoms have improved (for example, when cough or shortness of breath have improved) AND
- Received two negative tests in a row, 24 hours apart.
Steps to be Taken When an Employee/Visitor/Customer is exposed (In Close Contact) with an Individual who Is Positive For COVID-19
It is recommended that the employers pre-screen these employees by measuring temperature and monitoring symptoms associated with COVID-19, prior to entering the facility. These employees should be placed in home quarantine for 14 days since the time they might have been exposed or come in close contact with an infected individual.
(Since the information on the COVID 19 Pandemic is evolving continuously, these guidelines are based on the present information available about the pandemic and can be revised as and when any new information is available)