Good Manufacturing Practices are the set of requirements which are to be followed by – the manufacturing units, processing units & packaging units to ensure that the products & services they are offering should be safe, clean & effective.
The effective implementation of GMP could be carried out through a qualified approach in the manufacturing, processing & packaging units so as to avoid the contamination, mix-ups & errors. On one hand, the good manufacturing practices safeguard the consumer from the poor quality & hazardous product while on other hand; help the food business operators to comply with the guidelines. The failure to successfully implement a GMP plan in an organization may results in situations like; recall seizure, penalty & prosecution.
Good Manufacturing Practices facilitate record keeping, sanitation, personal qualification, cleanliness, equipment verification, process validation and complaint handling.
GMP in food industry
Personnel practices are the set of precautions to be taken by the people who are involved during manufacturing, processing & packaging. No person shall be allowed to work if suffering from any disease, one should wear clean cloths, gloves, caps etc and should take care of other necessary precautions.
The staff involved in the processes should have the basic level of education or they should have been trained to perform better.
A competent supervisor/manager should be employed to ensure all everyone involved in the manufacturing or operations process are following the norms.
The plant should be located on such a place where external pollutants could be avoided. There has to be a sufficient space for the equipment & storage of materials. Adequate lighting in the entire facility includes; hand washing area, dressing, locker, rooms, toilet etc. The entire facility should be kept cleaned.
The buildings, fixtures and other physical facilities of the plant shall be maintained in a sanitary condition. The cleaning compounds and the sanitizing agents used in the cleaning and sanitizing procedures shall be free from the undesirable microorganisms. The food could be contaminated if the cleaning compounds of the toxic nature are not used or stored properly.
The use of pesticides should not be permitted during food manufacturing and they shall only be allowed to be used in the plant under precautions and restrictions so that the food should not get contaminated.
All food contact surfaces like; utensils, equipment shall be cleaned frequently (dry & sanitary condition) to protects against the contamination of food.
Sanitary facilities and controls
There has to be a proper water supply from an adequate source of the required water quality. The sewage disposal shall be made into an adequate sewerage system or disposal through other adequate means.
There has to be a facility of toilet with proper water supply for the employees and hand washing space with running water in compliance to the regulations.
Equipment & Utensils
All equipment & utensils shall be made of good materials and they should be designed in such a manner to be hold/carried properly while in operations and could be cleaned easily. If not in use then they should be stored in a clean and dry place.
Processes and controls
The raw materials should be properly inspected & segregated to be used in the manufacturing process. It has to be verified that the raw material shall not contain levels of microorganisms. A proper storage space and the conditions to maintain a particular temperature & humidity level shall be taken care well to avoid and contamination & adulteration.
The manufacturing shall be conducted under such a conditions and controls as are necessary to minimize the growth of microorganisms. A minimum temperature of 5 degrees or below for frozen food products and 60 degrees for hot food products shall have to be maintained to avoid spreading of undesirable microorganisms.
Filling, assembling, packaging and other operations shall be performed in such a manner that the final food product shall be free from any contamination and would be served to the consumer in a good quality condition.
GMP provides flexibility to the food business operator to successfully implement the requirements for controlling the activities and serves the consumer with a better quality product.