- Does FSSAI allow addition of melamine and formaldehyde in milk?
Answer: Melamine either as an ingredient or additive is not permitted in any food product under the food safety regulations of the country, although maximum limits for presence of melamine in food products (including milk), have been established under the regulations to address the incidental presence of melamine as a contaminant. However, setting up of such maximum limits does not mean that FSSAI allows addition of melamine in foods even within the specified maximum limit. Detailed information on this issue is available at https://fssai.gov.in/all-whatnew.php
FSSAI food regulations also do not permit use of any preservative (including formaldehyde) in milk.
- Is addition of milk powder in milk allowed under food safety regulations? Is species identified milk (e.g. cow milk) allowed to be prepared by reconstitution process or by mixing of various types of milk? Which food additives (Preservatives /stabilizers/emulsifiers) are used in milk powder?
Answer: Food Safety and Standards (Food Products Standards and Food Additives) Regulations, 2011 permits adjustments of fat and solids-not-fat (SNF) content in milk through addition of milk solids (milk powders etc.) so as to be compliant with the standards specified in these regulations. However, such adjustment is allowed only in respect of Full cream milk, Standardized milk, Toned milk, Double toned milk and Skimmed milk and not for any species milk in its natural form.
In accordance with the definition of ‘milk’ under these regulations, any milk sold under the name of a species (e.g. cow milk, buffalo milk, camel milk etc.) should be in its natural form without any addition of milk solids or mixing of any other species identified milk.
Additives permitted for use in milk powders (Food Category 1.5.1) are specified in Table I, Appendix A of the Food Safety and Standard (Food Product Standards and Food Additives) Regulations, 2011. A compendium of these regulations is available on the FSSAI website: FSSAI
- Is Titanium Dioxide permitted for use in milk products?
Answer: As per the Food Safety and Standard (Food Product Standards and Food Additives) Regulations, 2011, the food additive Titanium Dioxide (INS 171) is permitted for use in several food categories under conditions of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). However, no such addition is allowed in the following categories of milk and milk products:
- Milk and buttermilk (plain), excluding heat-treated buttermilk)
- Fermented and renneted milk products (plain) excluding food category 1.1.2(dairy based drinks)
- Pasteurized cream (plain)
- Sterilized and UHT creams, whipping or whipped creams, and reduced fat creams (plain)
- Whey Cheese
- Whey protein cheese
- Dried whey and whey products, excluding whey cheese
- Is there any regulatory requirement to declare the type of milk (Al or A2) on milk packages?
Answer: Standards for milk as specified in Food Safety and Standards (Food Product Standards and Food Additives) Regulations, 2011 do not mention/recognize any differentiation of milk on the basis of Al and A2 types.
- Can dairy business operators mix various types of milk from different animals?
Answer: As per the Food Safety and Standards (Food Products Standards and Food Additives) Regulations, 2011, milk is defined as the normal mammary secretion derived from complete milking of healthy milch animal, without either addition thereto or extraction therefrom, unless otherwise provided in these regulations and it shall be free from colostrum.
Further, under these regulations, standards have been specified for milk obtained from various species of milking animals that include, cow, buffalo, sheep, goat and camel. These regulations also recognize “Mixed Milk” (defined as any combination of species identified milk specified under these regulations) and further allow use of any combination of species identified milk in the preparation of full cream milk, standardised milk, toned milk, double toned milk and skimmed milk.
- Are non-dairy ingredients (e.g. soya) allowed to be used in milk products?
Answer: Non-dairy ingredients, including soya, are not allowed as raw material / ingredients in the manufacture of milk/milk products defined in these regulations.
However, use of some specific non-dairy ingredients is allowed in the manufacture of composite milk products such as flavoured milk, flavoured fermented milk, fermented milk drinks, ice cream, shrikhand etc.